The most common grade of BITUMEN is 60/70 which is applicable in road construction and asphalt pavements. Today the world’s demand for BITUMEN accounts for more than 100 million tons per year which is approximately 700 million barrels of BITUMEN consumed annually.
Petroleum BITUMEN is typically referred to as bitumen or asphalt. In Europe for instance BITUMEN means the liquid binder. In North America, on the other hand the liquid binder is referred to as asphalt, or asphalt cement.
BITUMEN occurs in nature in several forms: hard one – easily crumbled BITUMEN in rock asphalt and softer, more viscous material which is present in tar sands and asphalt ‘lakes’. Another way in which BITUMEN can be obtained is through petroleum processing in this manner the BITUMEN is essentially the residue yielded through a distillation process of petroleum. Although BITUMEN can be found in natural form, the world currently relies for all purposes on petroleum. The material has been produced in this way for over a hundred years.
Depending on physical properties, there are various types of BITUMEN based on penetration as follows:
BITUMEN Penetration Grade 30/40
BITUMEN Penetration Grade 40/50
BITUMEN Penetration Grade 60/70
BITUMEN Penetration Grade 85/100
BITUMEN Penetration Grade 100/120
In this case, the unit of penetration is dmm (deci-millimeter) means 1/10 of millimeter. As an example, 65 dmm means 6.5 millimeter is the penetration amount of the noodle in the sample and its grade would be 60/70. Obviously, the most penetration value is related to the least viscose sample and
|Test Name||Unit||Standard||Test Method|
|Penetration @25 °C||dmm||60-70||ASTM D5|
|Specific gravity @25 °C||-||1.01-1.06||ASTM D7|
|Ductility @25 °C||cm||>100||ASTM D113|
|Viscosity @135 °C||cst||-||ASTM D4402|
|Viscosity @60 °C||poise||-||ASTM D4402|
|Flash point||°C||>240||ASTM D92|
|Softening point||°C||>46||ASTM D36|
|Solubility in toluene||%||99.5min||ASTM D4|
|Spot test||||negative||AASHTO T102|
|Loss on heating||%||0.2 max||ASTM D6|
|Retained Penetration||%||>55||ASTM D5|
|Retained Ductility@25 °C||cm||>50||ASTM D113|